The chapter goes on to provide us with some points on the types of the embedded clauses within nominal groups defining or restrictive relative clauses and non-defining or non-restrictive relative clauses , contact clauses in which the relative pronoun is omitted and the related stylistic options, rankshifted clauses in which the relative pronoun is the complement of a preposition and the relevant stylistic issues, and non- finite reduced relative clauses.
A section discusses multiple embedding. Toward the end of the chapter, a discussion is presented concerning embedded clauses, whether finite or non-finite, functioning as subject or Complement, and postposed extra posed clauses. This chapter provides, in each section, a functional analysis of the internal structure of the clause based on the terms and notions introduced in chapter 3 subject, Predicator, Finite, Complement, Adjunct.
It gives us a functional view of the embedding of clauses in English within SFG. Chapter 9 studies the expansion of a clause by means of producing clause complexes. These complexes are a combination of two or more clauses through linking equal clauses called parataxis, or binding one clause to another in a dependency relationship referred to as hypo- taxis. Linking equal clauses is carried out using linking conjunctions or linkers and, or, so, but traditionally termed as coordinate conjunctions.
In binding one clause to another, we have one dominant and one dependent clause. The binding is realized through binding conjunctions or binders traditionally known as subordinate conjunctions. Three subsections are respectively about the sequence of clauses when dealing with hypotaxis and parataxis, non-finite dependent clauses, and the differences between defining relative clauses and non-defining relative clauses, the most important of which is considering defining ones as instances of parataxis and non- defining ones as tokens of hypotaxis.
A final section presents us some examples of more complicated clause complexes, showing instances of multiple hypotaxis and parataxis.
Chapter 10 looks at clause complexes from a logical point of view. That is, how a clause projects another projection vs. Projection is of two types. One is paratactic and the other hypotactic. Paratactic projection involves direct speech or thought where a main clause stands in parataxis to a clause expressing direct speech or thought He said "I saw it on TV- I thought "This is the end of road for me.
Hypotactic projection includes cases in which a main clause projects another clause representing an indirect speech or thought Nick said there were fifty of you - He thought that the origin had one grave defect. This chapter also briefs on cases of non-finite projection where we have one clause projecting a non- finite clause He told me to do it. There exists a section on grammatical metaphor nominalization. This is a process through which a projecting verb turns into a projecting noun: He argued that she was wrong. His argument that she was wrong The difference lies in the fact that, in the former, we have a dependent clause and in the latter an embedded one.
The two final sections provide us respectively with examples of more complicated clause complexes and ambiguous clause complexes. Chapter 11 is designed to show the applications of SFG because the authors, following Halliday believe that theories are "means of action" and must have applications. This is realized by showing the uses of the functional analysis of English in analyzing scientific texts and valued texts, and by illustrating how SFG in English can put forward guidelines and helps in areas such as language development and teaching, language and power, language and literature, not to mention other areas.
In short, this chapter establishes the point that theories in general and linguistic theories in particular are not for mere theorizing, hence denying the idea of theory for the sake of theory. Therefore, reading through the chapter, we are brought to the conclusion that the functional analysis of language in general and of English in particular is helpful because it goes beyond sheer theorizing.
Chapter 12 gives us a historical overview which encompasses the ideas and theories of the beginning of the twentieth century modern linguistics de Saussure , American linguistics Sapir, Whorf, Bloomfield, Chomsky , the Prague School Trubetskoy, Jacobson, Mathesius, Firbas , and founders of functional linguistics Malinowski, Firth.
It also introduces some alternative functional approaches, like those of Givon, Dik, and Fawcett. This chapter tries to demonstrate some affinities and contrasts concerning SFG as formulated by Halliday. Reading the book, the reader feels safe and home with the basics of SFG analytic framework and can approach other more detailed introductions and more technical books and papers.
The followings are among its merits: 1. Real authentic examples; 2. Clear definitions, descriptions, and classifications; 3. Exercises and the answer key; 4. The "Further Study" section; and 5.
LINGUIST List Linguistic Theories: Bloor & Bloor ()
The glossary. Structures and Systems. Halliday, M. London: Edward Arnold. Halliday M. They are as following: 1. Language is a system of meanings. That is, through our language acts, we produce meaning by means of lexical choices, grammatical resources, and linguistic forms. Our linguistic choices are mainly unconscious. They are, of course, heavily dependant on the context.
The complex aspects of the situation in which language is used dictate our way of using language. Different situations necessitate different uses. The unit of study is attested texts- the text being any stretch of language, spoken or written, for the purpose of real people's communication in actual circumstances. The main unit of structure and, of course, the major unit of grammatical analysis is the clause which is itself part of a rank starting with clause, going through group and word, and ending with morpheme. The term function, which plays a central role in SFG, is generally divided into three categories: grammatical function, communicative function, and metafunction.
Metafunction is, in turn, classified into three subcategories, namely ideational experiential and logical , interpersonal, and textual metafunctions. Chapter 2 is also an introductory one. It starts with the parable of a lunatic dictator banning the technical terms. The parable is used to show the necessity of terminology in any science, including linguistics.
The authors go on to brief the reader with the nine word classes accepted in English within SFG. They are noun, pronoun, adjective, numeral, determiner, verb, preposition, and conjunction. Part of the chapter is dedicated to defining subject as a context-dependant concept and the tests used in English for detecting it. A section deals with the notion of group and introduces nominal group, verbal group, adverbial group, conjunction group, and prepositional group.
The chapter ends with a brief description of three approaches toward clause, namely "clause as exchange", "clause as message", and "clause as representation" which are respectively discussed with more details in chapters 3, 4, and 6. Chapter 3 deals with the internal structure of the clause.
by Bloor, Thomas & Bloor, Meriel & Bloor, Tom & Bloor, Meriel
It starts with a revisiting of subject which includes apposition, tests for detecting subject in a clause subject-finite agreement test, question tag test, yes- no question test , subjects in passive clauses, and dummy subjects. In the next section, the authors, following Berry , treat the concept of Complement as an element within the clause which fills who or what slot after the verb.
Complements are classified into direct object, indirect object, and intensive Complements. The pre-final section includes a discussion of Adjunct as a grammatically optional element in a clause and its classifications: circumstantial, conjunctive, and modal. The final section provides the reader with the analysis of a sample text as far as the internal elements of the clause are concerned.
In short, chapter 3 covers the internal components of the clause: Subject, verbal group, Complement, and Adjunct. It elaborates on the idea of "clause as exchange". Chapter 4 brings the information structure and thematic structure of the clause into focus. A section is dedicated to the thematic structure which introduces the twin notions of theme and rheme. This section goes on to show that, in English, subject, Predicator, Complements, and circumstantial Adjunct can function as theme.
It also treats unmarked themes in declaratives, interrogatives, wh-interrogatives, imperatives, and exclamatives. Marked theme in declarative clauses is another item covered. This section ends with some points about simple themes versus multiple themes.
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This chapter discusses the notion of "clause as message". Chapter 5 is on the textual metafunction. That is, how language users apply the given-new structure, theme-rheme structure, and cohesive devices to longer stretches of language in order to give them texture the quality of being text. The authors, using an example text, brief us on what the thematic progression and cohesive devices are, and how they play their role in "texturizing" any stretch of language. They introduce three common patterns of thematic progression, namely the constant theme pattern, the linear theme pattern, and the split rheme pattern.
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Bloor and Bloor also discuss the pattern of derived themes. They dedicate the rest of the chapter to the description of cohesive ties: reference, substitution, ellipsis, conjunction, and lexical cohesion. Reference is limited to endophoric reference within the text and two classification are presented, cataphoric forward- looking and anaphoric backward- looking.
Reference is also divided into personal, demonstrative, and comparative. D research in the light of functional grammar raised by Halliday M. K . It aims at presenting i the theoretical background of experimental meaning: the system of transitivity and especially behavioral clauses, ii the identification of English and Vietnamese verbs that realize process in behavioral clauses with a corpus of English and Vietnamese literary work of the late 20 th century and the early 21 st century, iii a topology of behavioral clauses in English and Vietnamese literary work.
When we look at the experimental metafunction, we are investigating the grammar of the clause as representation.
The Functional Analysis of English: A Hallidayan Approach (Arnold Publication)
To achieve the set goals, descriptive method and functional analysis are thoroughly chosen. Finally, this paper also employs the framework of Martin, Matthiessen and Painter , Bloor and Bloor  and Eggins  to find out more about the subtypes of behavioral processes in English and Vietnamese literary genre. Halliday M.